They look like something you’ll find in a galaxy very far away.
But these astonishing satellite images show the destructive effect asteroids and asteroids have on the Earth’s surface, leading to a number of strangely beautiful locations.
The eye-catching images are on the world’s first atlas of various craters that can be found around the world.
The astounding satellite images show the destructive impact asteroids and asteroids have on the Earth’s surface like the shoemaker in Western Australia (pictured)
The eye-catching pictures are on the world’s first atlas of craters that can be found around the world like Lonar in India (pictured)
The 600-page book shows more than 200 locations formed by asteroids and comets colliding with planets, in high-resolution topographic maps and satellite imagery.
It includes detailed geological descriptions and pictures of spectacular rocky mountain landscapes.
Titled Ground Impact Structures, the two episodes include ‘essential insights’ about each crater, including structures that have now disappeared from view.
Most craters only existed for a few thousand years before being filled or eroded, and then could only be determined by unique changes in the soil’s minerals caused by shock waves. collision.
Co-author, Professor Thomas Kenkmann at the University of Freiburg in Germany said: ‘Crater formation caused by asteroids and comet impacts has always been a fundamental process in the solar system.
The 600-page Tome shows more than 200 places like Serra da Cangalha in Brazil (pictured) formed by asteroids and comets colliding with planets
The researchers used a low-orbit radar satellite called TanDEM-X between 2010 and 2016 to measure every known crater on the Earth’s surface with an accuracy of up to one meter. In the photo: Manicouagan Crater in Quebec, Canada
‘As planets evolve with their moons, these effects play an important part in accreting planet mass, forming the surface of planetary celestial bodies, and then also affecting their development. ‘
‘And the collisions with larger asteroids eventually affected the development of life on Earth.’
The researchers used a low-orbit radar satellite called TanDEM-X between 2010 and 2016 to measure every known crater on the Earth’s surface with an accuracy of up to one meter.
These measurements helped them build digital topographic models of every known crater including Manicouagan in Canada, Cerro do Jarau in Brazil, Shoemaker in Western Australia and Gweni-Fada in Chad, Chau. Africa.
Prof Kenkmann said: ‘Moon and interplanetary space flights over the past 50 years have provided us with a detailed map of the old surfaces covered by the craters of neighboring countries. in our Solar System.
Most craters, such as the Ries in Germany (pictured) exist only a few thousand years before being filled or eroded, and can then only be identified by unique changes in the mineral. ground substance produced by shock waves in impact
‘For Earth, the global impact crater record represents only a fraction of the bombardment our planet has suffered.’
The book also introduces readers to the basic principles of impact analysis, radar remote sensing and provides detailed information about the TanDEM-X mission and field work performed by the researchers.
Famous craters like the Vredefort and the Chicxulub crater on Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula, where the dinosaur era ended, are also included in the atlas.
Thought as being 185 miles and 25 miles deep, the largest and oldest crater in the world, the Vredefort, appeared when a meteor or asteroid attacked what today is South Africa number 2, 02 billion years ago.
The book also introduces readers to the basic principles of impact analysis, radar remote sensing, and provides details on the TanDEM-X mission and field work performed by the researchers. In the photo: Gwendi-Fada crater in Chad
Estimating the magnitude of these collisions is really difficult because the craters have shrunk and in many cases disappeared.
Professor Kenkmann said: ‘The surface of our planet is always changing and after a few thousand years the craters may disappear.
‘Among them, some lakes were formed or they were buried, others completely eroded.
‘But shock waves that produce changes in minerals in the ground are unique, so even if you can’t see the crater, signs of shock remain.
‘What we aggregate in this atlas is all confirmed impact structures, even ones you don’t see.’
Measurements helped them build digital topographic models of every known crater including Manicouagan crater in Canada and Cerro do Jarau in Brazil (pictured)
The largest crater in England is underwater, about 25 miles off the northwest coast of Scotland and so does not feature in the atlas.
Underwater holes, first discovered in 2008, were carved when a three-billion-ton rock smashed into the Mich basin, between the Lewis and Harris islets in the Outer Hebrides at 40,000 miles per hour.
When asked what his favorite crater is, Professor Kenkmann said: ‘I have a special relationship with the craters that I do in the field, sometimes under extreme conditions.
‘Craters in Australia often need helicopter access and then you stay there alone in the outback for a few weeks of mapping and investigating the crater structure.
‘That’s really great.’
Famous craters like the Vredefort and the Chicxulub crater in Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula, where the dinosaur era ended, are also included in the atlas. In the photo: Lappajarvi Crater in Finland
He added: ‘Really nice is the investigation of Upheaval Dome crater morphology in Utah in Canyonlands National Park on the Colorado Plateau.
‘This crater is deeply eroded and provides complete 3D insight into what’s happening to the rock below the crater.
By the way, this crater was originally thought to be a salt dome until we were able to detect the shocked minerals and prove the source of its effects. ”
The books, contained in a holder, are available for purchase on the Verlag Pfeil website.