قالب وردپرس درنا توس
Home / Science / Researchers recreated the first complete brain of one of the oldest dinosaurs

Researchers recreated the first complete brain of one of the oldest dinosaurs



Researchers recreated the first complete brain of one of the oldest dinosaurs

The brain of Buriolestes schultzi. Credit: Márcio L. Castro

Research into the brains of extinct organisms sheds light on their behavior. However, soft tissues, such as the brain, are usually not stored for long. Therefore, the researchers reconstructed the dinosaur̵

7;s brain by analyzing the cranial cavities under computerized tomography. It requires well-preserved cerebral cortex, which is the area that surrounds brain tissue. Until now, complete and well-preserved nerve tumors from the oldest dinosaurs worldwide have yet to be found.


In 2015, a Brazilian paleontologist from the Federal University of Santa Maria, Dr. Rodrigo Temp Müller, unearthed a particularly well-preserved skeleton from a fossilized locality in southern Brazil. . The skeleton, dating back to about 233 million years (Triassic), belonged to a small carnivorous dinosaur named Buriolestes schultzi and the entire brain was preserved. Now, Brazilian researchers have recreated the first complete brain of one of the oldest dinosaurs in the world.

Research is published in Journal of Anatomy and performed by Rodrigo T. Müller, José D. Ferreira, Flávio A. Pretto, and Leonardo Kerber from the Federal University of Santa Maria and Mario Bronzati from the University of São Paulo.

Buriolestes schultzi’s brain is relatively small and weighs about 1.5 grams, slightly lighter than a pea. The original shape, like the general morphology of the crocodile brain. In addition, the presence of well-developed structures in the cerebellum indicates the ability to track the moving prey. In contrast, the sense of smell is not high; therefore, the Buriolestes schultzi was more likely to hunt and track prey based on optical rather than olfactory abilities.

Researchers recreated the first complete brain of one of the oldest dinosaurs

Buriolestes prey on a small lepidosauromorph in the Triassic landscape from Brazil. Credit: Márcio L. Castro

Despite the dinosaur’s predatory behavior, it is descended from the giant, long-necked, herbivorous sauropod, the largest terrestrial animal ever to live. However, Buriolestes schultzi is considered to be the earliest member of this lineage. Therefore, the new brain regeneration allowed researchers to analyze the brain evolution of this impressive lineage.

Researchers recreated the first complete brain of one of the oldest dinosaurs

The brain of Buriolestes schultzi. Credit: Márcio L. Castro

One of the most conspicuous trends is the proliferation of the olfactory bulbs. While these olfactory-responsible structures are relatively small in Buriolestes schultzi, they become very large in later sauropods and closely related forms. The development of a strong sense of smell may be associated with the performance of more complex social behaviors, based on smell in some groups of vertebrates. In addition, it has been observed that high sense of smell plays an important role in foraging, helping animals better distinguish between indigestible and indigestible plants. Finally, another hypothetical explanation for the sauropod’s olfactory enhancement relies on the predator’s ability to detect chemical markers.

Researchers recreated the first complete brain of one of the oldest dinosaurs

The brain and skull of Buriolestes schultzi. Credit: Márcio L. Castro and Rodrigo Temp Müller

The scientists also calculated the cognitive ability, or intelligence, of Buriolestes schultzi based on brain mass and body weight. Values ​​obtained were higher than those of giant sauropods, such asurusocus and Brachiosaurus, indicating a decrease in brain likelihood in lineage. This is interesting because several other lineages experience an increase in brain count over time. However, Buriolestes schultzi’s cognitive abilities were lower than that of arthropods, the lineage included tyrannosaurus, Velociraptor dinosaurs and birds.


New fossil evidence suggests that dinosaurs’ rise was’ more gradual ‘


More information:
Alex Schiller Aires et al. The evolution and evolution of the notepad in Pterosauria, Journal of Anatomy (Year 2020). DOI: 10.1111 / joa.13319

Provided by Santa Maria Federal University

Quote: Researchers reconstructed the first complete brain of one of the oldest dinosaurs (2020, November 3) retrieved November 3, 2020 from https://phys.org /news/2020-11-reconstruct-brain-oldest-d Dinosaurs.html

This material is the subject for the fake rights. Apart from any fair dealings for private study or research purposes, no part may be reproduced without written permission. The content provided is for informational purposes only.




Source link