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Neighborhood conditions related to children’s cognitive function



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Tuesday, November 3, 2020

Research funded by NIH from ABCD Research shows an irrespective of household income.

What

A study published today on The JAMA network is open shows that children from poorer regions perform worse at a variety of cognitive functions, such as speech, reading, memory and attention, and have smaller brain mass at The main cognitive regions compared with children from richer regions.

While many studies have shown that a household̵

7;s socioeconomic status influences children’s cognitive development, less is known about the impact of the wider neighborhood context. By revealing the role of the surrounding environment in shaping brain development, research results can provide information on interventions aimed at improving outcomes for children in need. towels. The research was funded by the National Institute of Drug Abuse, and nine other institutes, centers, and offices are under the National Institutes of Health.

The researchers analyzed data from Adolescent Cerebral Cognitive Development (ABCD), focusing on how environmental and biological factors affect the development of adolescents. adult. The team looked at data from brain imaging and neurocognitive testing from 11,875 children 9 to 10 years old (48% female) from 21 locations in the United States, largely reflecting the metropolitan areas. town and suburbs.

The researchers found that youth living in high-poverty regions had a lower certain brain mass, partly explaining the possible relationship between high neighborhood poverty and high scores. lower numbers on cognitive tests. Affected areas of the brain are located in the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus, areas involved in language and memory. The volume difference was significant even after the researchers adjusted for the effects of household income. For each unit of increase in poverty in the vicinity, the child scores a 3.22 points lower on the cognitive test, even when included in household income.

While other studies have shown poorer learning and cognitive outcomes in children raised in poor environments, this study sheds light on the particular importance of neighborhood contexts for Child development, regardless of the child’s household income. The study’s findings suggest that policies addressing uneven resource allocation between neighborhoods can help reduce imbalances in cognitive performance. Additional research is needed to determine which features of the neighborhood, such as school funding or environmental pollution, can affect a child’s cognitive and brain development.

The ABCD study, the largest of its kind in the United States, is tracking nearly 12,000 young adults as they grow up to adolescents. Investigators routinely measure participants’ brain structure and activity using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and collect psychological, environmental and cognitive information, as well as biological samples. The goal of the study is to define standards for normal brain and cognitive development and to identify factors that can enhance or disrupt a young person’s life trajectory.

Adolescent Cerebral Cognitive Development Research and ABCD Research are trademarks and registered service marks, respectfully, of the United States Department of Health and Human Services.

Article

Taylor, RL, Cooper, SR, Jackson, JJ, Barch, DM. Assessment of poverty level, cognitive function and prefrontal and hippocampus in children. INSERT HYPERLINK. Open the JAMA network. November 3, 2020.

WHO

Gaya Dowling, Ph.D., Director, Adolescent Cerebral Cognitive Development Research, National Institute of Drug Abuse, is available for comment.

To learn more, visit: Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Research.

The National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA) is a component of the National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services. NIDA supports most research around the world on the health aspects of drug abuse and addiction. The institute implements a series of programs to provide policy information and improve practice. Information sheets on the health effects of drug abuse and information about NIDA research and other activities can be found at https://www.drugabuse.gov, currently compatible with smartphones, Your iPad or tablet. To order publications in English or Spanish, call NIDA’s DrugPubs Research Dissemination Center at 1-877-NIDA-NIH or 240-645-0228 (TDD) or email inquiry to drugpubs@nida.nih.gov (link sent by e-mail). Online ordering is available at https://drugpubs.drugabuse.gov. NIDA’s communication guide can be found at https://drugabuse.gov/mediaguide and its easy-to-read website can be found at https://www.easyread.drugabuse.gov.

About the National Institutes of Health (NIH):
NIH, the national health research agency, is comprised of 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the US Department of Health and Human Services. The NIH is the primary federal agency that conducts and supports basic medical research, clinical and transformation, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. . For more information about the NIH and its programs, visit www.nih.gov.

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